Methods of teaching a preschool child to read at home
It seems to be difficult today to be a parent, as never before. The society requires more and more children, and in order to meet the priorities of the new time, family people have to work very hard. They need to fully engage in the comprehensive development of their child. This is important to spend enough time and effort, to approach the learning process and scientifically sound, and at the same time childishly playful. Doing a child after the sleeves is like not doing anything at all. After all, in this subtle issue, not only the result itself, but also the learning process, its comfort for the child, the individual interest of the child to the mechanism of play and learning is important.
One of the most important stages in the development of any preschooler is the formation of a reading skill. Today, there are many techniques that help to teach this child. For example, there is a method of teaching a preschooler to read for 15 lessons. Of course, to believe or not to believe that it is possible to teach him to read in just two weeks effectively and not traumatically for the child's psyche, it's up to you. However, the existence of a multitude of qualitative methods is confirmed by practice. In this article we will look at some of them.
This method of teaching today is still one of the most common. With her help, most of the current adults got the reading skill. Also this method is used now in absolutely all schools - it is universal.
According to this theory, training should be carried out step by step: first letters, then syllables, later words and so on. The realization of the scheme of combining sounds into whole phrases comes to the child gradually, some require more time for this than others.
Also much depends on the literal age of the child. A one-year-old is quite capable of memorizing letters, but he can not master the reading skill. For this it is necessary to be able to understand the patterns inherent in this process, to which so little a child is not capable.
It takes patience. Children often forget what they just read. The process is new, and sometimes the child sets the pace of the lessons himself.
The main advantage of this method is its reliability. Regardless of the child's abilities, he will in any case learn to read.
Cubes of Zaitsev
This technique helps to learn to read by means of the perception of syllables. It actively uses a variety of cubes, as well as colorful tables. According to some reviews, many parents face some difficulties. They are connected with the fact that not everyone can determine how it would be right to use all these manuals for training. Practice has shown that this technique achieves its highest effectiveness only when interacting in a group. Thus, classes using cubes Zaitseva in kindergartens and various development centers will help to get the maximum result for the minimum time.
The Glen Doman Method
This method of teaching the reading of a preschool child at home implies the skill of perception of the whole word, and not of any of its parts. On the territory of the Russian Federation, this method became known only in the nineties of the last century. The training of preschool children by this method takes place through the use of special benefits for the development of the child (cards) and as often as possible and high-quality communication with the baby.
Advantages of the Doman method:
- Suitable for children of any age, even for the youngest.
- Teaching reading of preschoolers occurs during the game, which allows them to enjoy the attention of their parents and gain new knowledge.
- The system effectively develops memory, provides valuable encyclopedic knowledge.
- Many Nobel Prize winners were brought up using this technique.
- Such instruction in reading preschool children develops them very versatile.
The shortcomings of Glen Doman's methodology
Like any method of teaching a preschooler to reading, Doman's method has its drawbacks. They are as follows:
- You need a huge number of different cards to achieve the desired effect. It is extremely difficult and time-consuming in the event that parents decide to make them themselves. Or you can buy a ready-made kit that can be somewhat costly.
- Such cards teach the preschooler how to teach reading to the kid every day and more than once. In this case, the cards that the child has already seen, should be replaced in a timely and correct manner. If this is not done or done irregularly, the effectiveness of the methodology can be significantly reduced. This becomes a problem if the parents are employed full-time and, accordingly, have other responsibilities, and also if the family has several children.
- All children are different. Many people find it difficult to sit in one place for a sufficient amount of time. Some children just do not react to any cards or quickly forget what they learned yesterday. Kids can try to select a demonstration material, chew and spoil it. In such cases, this method of teaching a preschooler does not work.
- In elementary school there may be difficulties in the relationship with the teacher. This often happens with children who are not trained in traditional technologies.
- This is perhaps the main drawback. The kid is not an active participant in the process. Only one system of feelings of the child is involved: only the visual. Although the kid gets knowledge, he does not learn to reason and analyze. This method of teaching the reading of a preschool child should be combined with other, more creative ones.
Consecutive education of children requires considerable time and effort. It would be reasonable to divide it into a number of stages, which will facilitate the process of forming a new skill for the child. We will have to go through the following steps: the process of studying and memorizing individual letters; the development of the ability to read syllables, regardless of their size and complexity; learn to recognize the meaning of individual words; be able to understand the meaning of the text as a whole.
At the very beginning, the traditional method of teaching a preschooler to reading is based on the memorization of letters. To begin with, it is important to learn to distinguish between themselves and to recognize among other designations. The next step is to read them.
The teaching method for reading a preschool child at home recommends that the child be given consonant letters as they are pronounced (ie sounds), and not as they are presented in specialized books. This will speed up the perception process and help the kid understand how to use this information in practice.
Teaching children to read at this stage means concentrating the child's attention on new material. To do this, you can hang an image of letters and associated objects in the preschooler's room and throughout the house as a whole. It is also effective to pay attention to familiar signs in names of signs during walks.
Reading syllables of different complexity
This stage fully reflects the method of teaching the reading of a preschool child by Zhukova. It is based on the perception of a single syllable as a minimal unit. This helps to realize and remember the connections that exist between different syllables and how they should be pronounced. At this stage, the baby, as a rule, has many difficulties. In order to help him cope with them, it is necessary to consciously make this level of instruction as clear as possible.
Most preferably it would be slow and clear, with the utmost right to pronounce the words and ask the child to repeat everything after you. Then the kid will get used to the correct variant of reading.
One should not in any way accustom a child to say syllables separately or to himself and only then to unite them into a single whole. Unfortunately, such a habit can be fixed in the mind for a long time, and getting rid of it will be extremely difficult. This is an important nuance of teaching methods for reading preschoolers. Zhukova also focuses on this in her writings.
Understanding the meaning of the word
This stage is the basis for teaching synthetic reading. Its base is the assimilation of meaning. This is the basis for the method of teaching the reading of preschool children in Starzhinskaya. This method is extremely effective and even necessary. After all, understanding the meaning of the reading becomes the key to fluent reading in the future. By the time of transition to this stage, the child has enough skills to effectively absorb the meaning of words.
It is important that now everything is read at approximately the same rate as it is pronounced in ordinary daily speech. If this time is too stretched, it becomes incredibly difficult for the child to guess or feel the meaning.
You need to start slowly, gradually accelerating the pace. It should be specified every time the baby, the meaning of which words are unclear to him, which should be explained.
Learning to understand the meaning of the whole text
This stage completes the traditional method of teaching preschoolers. Now it's time to learn to synchronously understand the meaning of everything that the child reads. This requires a lot of time, so parents should be patient and do not require too much of the baby. Comprehension of content is a long and complex process.
Sometimes a child is able to correctly read each of the words of the sentence, but can not realize its meaning. This is due to the presence in the phrase of a complex combination, which took full possession of the attention of the baby. And sometimes the preschooler simply can not keep all the parts of the sentence in mind at the same time to form his meaning. You can overcome this difficulty by repeatedly rereading this text.
Another difficulty is trying to guess the meaning of the proposal for the first association. And other children begin to constantly skip or replace letters in words. This is due to the fact that the preschooler perceives some general image of the word, applying it also for other similar language units.
Do not force the child to re-read one text over and over again. This forms an incorrect associative chain, creating an aggressively negative attitude of the baby to this process.
It is important to carefully study each stage. From this directly depends on how the child will read in the future and how competently to write.
The development of your children is completely in your hands. Of course, today is not so easy to find the time to qualitatively spend it with the child, but for parents there should be nothing more important. Therefore, the process of research and finding the appropriate method for your child's reading instruction should be given enough time and attention.
Sometimes there will be failures. They are inevitable. It happened with every child, and with you too. This does not mean that your baby is developing worse than others or will never learn to read fluently and clearly understand the texts. These failures only testify to the fact that the wrong choice of the method was made, or the parents give insufficient attention to the process, or the classes are not held regularly, or the essence of the method does not help focusing the particular child. In any case, do not be angry with the baby, his guilt is absolutely not there. Be reserved, patient, friendly. It is important to be with the child at the same time. If you are one team, victory is close.
Many people still prefer to choose traditional methods of teaching, which combine the ways of Zhukova and Starzhinskaya, and in general they mean the gradual formation of skills. Such techniques have collected a huge amount of positive feedback, they are simple and reliable. Each child will be able to learn reading with their help. Only the time necessary for this can be distinguished.
Newer techniques, such as Zaitsev's cubes and Doman's method, do not fit every child, but this in no way detracts from their effectiveness. To implement each of them, you need some amount of props, for example, a certain number of cards, cubes, tables. They are used as a visual material for better perception of new information. As a rule, such methods of learning are positively perceived by children, since in them the game element is obvious. The child does not get tired so easily and is easily involved in the process. A special effect can be achieved if the training takes place in a group. The successes of others motivate the child much more than a simple personal interest in this process.
It is possible to choose the appropriate method, not the first time. Failures are inevitable. However, do not despair. Your child's well-being deserves all your efforts!