Fine motor hand: this is a recommendation for the development of motor skills
Many modern moms and dads have already had time to get acquainted with the concept of "fine motor skills". Trying to positively influence the development of the child, parents persistently slip the baby sorter and finger labyrinths, and with the older children they paint and mold for days.
But how do you know if the actions taken are correct? Does the degree of load correspond to the age of the baby and do the exercises bring the desired effect? To answer these and other questions, one should take a closer look at the development of fine motor skills.
Motoric is a combination of body movements performed under the control of the body's psychological reactions. The motor processes that a person owns give an idea of the level of development of his coordination and intelligence.
Psychologists classify motor activity, distinguishing several of its types:
- Common, or large, motor skills are responsible for the movement of the muscle group. An example of such activity is running or squatting.
- Fine motor skills - movements of hands or fingers. Developed motor reactions of the hands help us to lace up the shoes or close the door to the key. To fine motor skills are the actions in which it is necessary to combine the movements of the eyes and hands, as in drawing, for example.
- Articulatory motor skills are the ability to coordinate the work of a speech apparatus, that is, to speak.
A little physiology
Studying the issues of child psychology and pedagogy, scientists came to staggering conclusions. It turns out that about a third of the cortex is responsible for the development of the motor skills of the hands. In addition, this third is located as close to the speech center as possible. Comparison of these facts gave grounds to consider the motor activity of hands and fingers responsible for human speech.
In connection with this, the development of fine motor skills in the hands of an early child is one of the fundamental tasks in the teaching of speech skills. Of course, along with the improvement of articulatory activity. The results of many years of experience prove that the conclusions of the scientists turned out to be correct.
In addition to the above dependence, fine motor skills have a direct effect on the formation of logic, mental skills, memory strengthening, training of observation, imagination and coordination. Children who have a better command of their own hands are more plodding and more slowly tired.
Calendar of development of fine motor skills
At each age the child is able to perform certain actions. New opportunities appear to him as the maturation of the nervous system. Each new achievement is due to the fact that the previous skill was successfully mastered, therefore it is necessary to follow the level of the formation of motor skills.
- 0-4 months - the child is able to coordinate eye movements, trying to reach the objects with his hands. If you manage to pick up a toy, then the wringing of the brush occurs, rather, thanks to reflexes, which die out to six months. Dominant preferences that allow performing actions with a more "comfortable" hand, the baby does not yet exist, and they will not appear soon - he is still "right handed" and "left-handed".
- 4 months - a year - the child's skills are actively improved, now he can move objects from hand to hand, perform simple actions such as turning pages. Now with two fingers the baby will be able to grab even a small bead.
- 1-2 years - the movement is more confident, now the child is more active using his index finger. There are first drawing skills - the kid displays points and circles, and soon will be able to draw a line on the sheet with a pencil. Now he begins to prefer one hand to the other.
- 2-3 years - the motor skills of the hands allows you to hold scissors and even cut them paper. The drawing style changes with the way the pencil is held, and the first conscious figures appear on the sheet.
- 3-4 years - the baby is already confidently drawing, he knows how to cut a sheet along the line drawn. He has already decided on the dominant hand, but in games he skillfully uses both. Soon the child will learn to hold a pen or pencil, just like an adult, so by the age of 4 he will be ready to learn written skills.
- 4-5 years. The fine motorism of the hands of children of this age already resembles the movements of adults. Pay attention: during drawing or decorating the child moves not all hand at once, but only with a brush. The movements are more refined, that's why it's not so difficult to cut an object out of paper or decorate it without leaving the contours.
- 5-6 years. At this age, the preschool brushes should be perfectly coordinated, the child already holds the handle with three fingers, draws small details, like an adult, can use scissors. All the skills of the baby say that he will not experience difficulties in school.
A low level of motor development - what is fraught with this?
Inadequately formed hand motor skills prevent not only the development of speech skills. Such a child may experience problems with memory, logic. If this is a preschooler, then he must urgently help, because to school he will be absolutely not ready. Such a student will have difficulty concentrating, he will quickly become tired and inevitably begin to lag behind.
When and how to start studying with the baby?
From birth, you can begin to pay attention to the development of the baby. Of course, a newborn is not interested in a sorter or a toy with lacing. But you can start putting rattles in his hand, giving fingers to the tissues of different textures, making the kid massage the pens.
The age is determined in which the active development of the motor skills of the fingers is important - 8 months. If until now this issue has not been given attention, now is the time to take any action.
To arrange real lessons with your own baby, mom does not need professional pedagogical skills. For the exercises, the simplest items that will always be found in any house are suitable. The main principle on which the development of motor skills of the hands is built is "from big to small." In what way is this expressed?
- Start to roll with the child balls from plasticine. Let the kid blind something. If he is able to do it - you can gradually move to more small and complex details.
- You can just tear the paper. First on large pieces, then on small ones. The smaller the details in the end, the higher the level of motor development in the child.
- It is possible, together with the baby, to string beads on a string, tie up shoelaces, and fasten buttons.
Passive gymnastics (massage)
Excellent assistant in the development of child coordination competent masseur. An experienced specialist will also help with the motor skills of the baby's pens. You can begin classes in the first 3-4 months of the child, while sessions can be held for 5 minutes to several times a day.
Massage sessions are best entrusted to a professional, but if necessary, some exercises are allowed to perform independently. So, the kid's hands should be ironed for a minute, then rub a little. Then make vibrating tapping with your fingers on the hands and palms. Another effective exercise in the massage - flexion and extension of the fingers with the subsequent massaging of each.
Toys for motor skills of hands in a huge number are sold in children's goods stores. To them, even the instruction is attached, indicating the recommended age and description of the game process. But buying anything is not necessary. You can play with any objects - for the development of motor skills, almost any thing in the house (safe for the child) will do.
Board for the development of motor skills, made with his own hands, or a bisyboard according to the Montessori method, is an excellent gift for a kid between the ages of up to 3 years. Such a toy can make dad. To do this, you need a sheet of plywood and the most dangerous items in the house: an outlet with a fork, furniture fittings, switches, latches and other household parts. The meaning of the toy is the child's knowledge of such things in their safe form. After getting acquainted with the outlet on the stand, the baby will not become interested in the present, and by touching these objects with fingers, he will develop the motor skills of his fingers.
If your beloved child has already hit 3 years, then you can offer a game in Cinderella. To do this, various cereals or legumes are poured into the pouch, and the child is given the task to sort out everything.
Why not play "Guess"? You can tie your child's eyes and take turns putting household items into his hands - let him guess them.
In addition, the child will approve games in mosaic, finger theater, joint applications. To help your beloved child to cultivate is not at all difficult, the main thing is to apply your imagination a little.