Bashkir breed horses: description, characteristics and photos
In ancient times, the steppe and northern forest (tarpan) breeds of horses were brought to the southern Ural slopes, which became the parental pair for the horse of the Bashkir breed. Hardy horses became the pride of a whole people and played an important role in his life.
From the history
Bashkirian breed, whose history began in the XVII century, was named the country in which it was withdrawn - Bashkiria. And due to the fact that it borders on the Ural lands, horses began to spread and actively used in Siberia. The main role of Bashkir horses was to deliver mail, because they easily overcame long distances due to their endurance, diligence and unpretentiousness.
The horses of the Bashkir breed quickly gained popularity. They began to breed in the Samara, Perm and Kazan provinces, where they harnessed to the top three to overcome long distances. After all, animals could gallop up to 150 km in eight hours without stopping and feeding.
The content of the Bashkir horses did not cause any trouble. They were driven out to the pastures all year round and fed on their own, and for the winter for them hay was harvested and sets were set up in which the horses could hide from frosts and cold wind.
Characteristics of character
The horse of the Bashkir breed was formed under the influence of environmental conditions. Also, the nature was affected by steppe and forest roots. Therefore, the Bashkirs are represented by wild or semi-wild animals with a developed sense of ownership. The herds are often broken up into groups - jambs, in which stallions-mowers are running, protecting and protecting their jamb not only from encroachments of strangers, but also from predatory animals, in which battles with horses often die.
The horses of the Bashkir breed, the description of which we quote, run around in the herds, are often left unattended. This is due to the fact that stallions-leaders responsibly relate to the duties assigned to them. They do not allow horses to disperse and do not admit strangers to them. This applies not only to animals, but also to humans. Trust is only familiar to the detainees.
The true Bashkir breed of horses, the photo of which is presented below, combines the characteristic features of steppe and forest animals. Today, work is under way to improve the breed. As a result of interspecific selection and a properly designed diet, modern Bashkirs are distinguished by their tirelessness, strength and endurance, despite their low growth.
Description of the appearance
In addition to the benefits listed, how does the Bashkir horse differ? Its features are also in the fact that this is one of the rare animals whose wool does not cause allergies in humans.
Bashkir horses are distinguished by their large physique with relatively low growth. The height of the representatives of the breed at the withers does not exceed 150 cm. On the massive fleshy neck there is a rather large coarse head. Animals are distinguished by a straight back and a waist that is comfortable for securing the saddle, which ends with a slightly lowered croup. The Bashkirs are proud owners of a broad, powerful chest and strong, lean extremities with developed hooves. The mane and tail are thick and long, often contrasting in color with the dense body hair.
Stallions and mares vary in size:
- height on the withers: 144-147 cm and 140-143 cm;
- oblique length of the trunk: 152-154 cm and 148-150 cm;
- chest girth: 178-180 cm and 175-177 cm;
- girth of the pastern: 19.5-20 cm and 18.3-18.7 cm;
- live weight: 450-460 kg and 430-440 kg.
The color of the horse of the Bashkir breed has inherited from its northern forest ancestors - tarpans - and can be masculine, savras (more often representatives of the steppe subtype), brown, red, brown, black and gray. Also there are zebroid suits with clear whitish stripes on the body.
Subtypes of the breed
The mountain and steppe subtypes of the rock are distinguished, which differ slightly in size (mountain shallower), in terms of productivity and appearance. According to economic characteristics, several groups are distinguished, which are completed according to the level of milk yield, fitness for harness and saddle. The inhabitants of the steppe area are better suited for horse riding due to an easier head, tall legs and a slender body. They also have a more moving and playful disposition.
There are also harness and riding-harness subtypes of the Bashkirs. They are appreciated for the speed and speed of running, easy handling and the ability to travel long distances without food and rest. The horses have a kind and trustful disposition, which made them irreplaceable companions of cavalrymen during the Great Patriotic War, and today they are used for teaching the art of riding.
Horses of the Bashkir breed, whose characteristics suggest suitability for heavy agricultural work and endurance for riding and harness riding, are actively being withdrawn for the purpose of obtaining meat and milk. And if horse meat is a traditional product in Bashkortostan, from which kazy (horse meat sausage) is prepared, various meat dishes, and also dried and dried, there have been controversial arguments about dairy production for a long time. Many believed that obtaining milk from mares would degrade the quality characteristics of the breed, because the growing colony organism would not receive the required amount of nutrients.
But after Postnikov's doctor proved the useful properties of mare's milk, livestock breeding became actively gaining momentum. In Bashkiria there were easy-harness and heavy-duty breeds that crossed with local horses. As a result, hybrids were obtained that were larger and more productive than pure Bashkir breeds.
The number of horses was growing rapidly, but because of hybridization, the population of purebred Bashkir horses began to decline, and this could lead to the complete extinction of the breed. As an exit from the current situation, it was proposed to open tribal stations, whose activities allowed preserving the unique qualities of the Bashkirian horse.
Contents of Bashkir horses
The horses of the Bashkir breed are the most unpretentious because of the qualities inherited from the wild ancestors. They are able to keep year-round in open pasture conditions and independently obtain their own food. With the approach of cold weather, the horses grow a thick long coat that does not need regular cleaning. But in conditions of severe winters with heavy snowfalls it is necessary to provide animals with shelter and fodder.
That horses do not suffer from diseases, it is necessary to control their growth and development, during which animals must move a lot. Do not interfere with the advice of specialists, and at the end of the work you need to clean the nostrils and hooves, because there can accumulate moisture and sweat, which adversely affect the health of pets and can become a source of infection.
Nomadic life and relative freedom influenced the unpretentiousness of horses to food. Most of the time they are able to independently find themselves a sufficient number of food, and in the winter the herd feeds on harvested hay, concentrated fodder and vegetables. With balanced and sufficient nutrition, horses do not need additional fertilizing, and they will tirelessly perform agricultural work and cover huge distances in the harness.
Features of choosing a horse
Sale of horses of Bashkir breed orienting on the buyer. That is, choose the animal follows, based on the purposes of using the animal.
- If the animal is purchased for agricultural work and the transport of goods, the stallion is better suited. They are stronger and more enduring than mares, able to perform almost any work.
- For dairy production it is necessary to take the mare, having ascertained in advance certain indicators. If you buy a foal or a young filly, you need to understand what its productivity is. You can determine this by the indicators of milking her mother. The rate of milk production varies between 1.5-2 thousand liters per year.
- To ride horses equally fit the horses of both sexes. Bashkirians are characterized by speed, playfulness and speed of running, as well as the ability to travel long distances. And thanks to the complaisance of the Bashkir breed, horses are ideal for horse riding training for adults and children alike.
One should also take into account the fact that when using animals in heavy work it is necessary to take care of an additional balanced lure so that the pets recover their strength as much as possible.
Than representatives of the Bashkir breed can be ill
Animals, like humans, are prone to disease. All diseases of horses are divided into contagious and non-contagious. The first include diseases caused by infections from penetration into the body of animal parasitic microorganisms. Animals can infect associates, birds, rodents and bloodsucking insects. Such ailments are characterized by rapid spread and inflict tremendous damage to the household.
Non-contagious diseases are usually attributed to injuries of animals. The most common injuries of legs and hooves.
Horses of the Bashkir breed are unique animals that combine the qualities of wild ancestors and the submissiveness of domestic breeds. They are famous for their high load-carrying capacity, endurance and unpretentiousness. Today, these are the most popular animals for training in riding skills, because animals differ in calm and balanced nature.