Lymphocytes in children - the norm
Whatever disease happens to us, the first thing that we are forced to do in the hospital is to pass a general blood test. This method of research is very simple, most accessible and informative. To children it or him appoint or nominate since a birth. In order to get an accurate result, it is better to take tests in the morning, on an empty stomach. Water intake is allowed. There are situations when it is necessary to donate blood more than once a day. In this case, the ingestion of food is entirely acceptable. As for small children, the blood sample is taken 1.5 to 2 hours after the last meal.
Indications for a clinical blood test
- in order to assess the general condition of the patient;
- examination of healthy children for prevention once a year;
- examination of children with chronic diseases several times a year;
- in case of complaints in children;
- a long course of the disease;
- complications during illness
Clinical blood test
Blood sampling for this study is done mainly from the fingers. But sometimes blood is taken from the toes, and in newborns, and completely from the heel. The blood contains red and white blood cells. The first include hemoglobin, platelets, erythrocytes, and the number of the second determine how many leukocytes are contained in the blood. Leukocyte cells come in several forms: plasma, monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and neutrophils.
Lymphocytes and their functions
As already mentioned above, lymphocytes are white blood cells. These are the main cellular elements of the whole body's immune system. They form in the bone marrow of a man, and in an embryo they are born in stem cells and in the liver. These cells are the main strength of the body.They fight against harmful bacteria and viruses and immediately recognize the foreign body in the body. That is why it is very important to know the level of lymphocytes in the blood, whose norm at different ages is different. In the event that the number of white blood cells is lowered, this is a possible signal of health problems. They also produce antibodies that resist various infections. The table below indicates the number of lymphocytes according to age. Such indicators are clearly defined. There is a definite leukocyte formula - the ratio of lymphocytes and other leukocytes. In accordance with her lymphocytes are 20-35% in human blood.
Lymphocytes are lowered
After a general analysis, lymphocytes in children can be examined. The norm and the real indicator do not always coincide. If it is below the established, then this indicates acute or chronic lymphopenia. It can be transmitted to the child from the mother or originated from congenital diseases that are associated with the immune system. It can also talk about an existing hereditary disease. Usually such a disease is acquired. It is due to the lack of protein in the food. AIDS can also be the cause. It destroys the T cells that were affected. Autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and enteropathy, lead to protein loss.
Lymphocytes in children, norm - Table
Types of lymphopenia
It has already been said about what white blood cells are and what their norm is. Lymphocytes in the blood of a child are below this level and usually it indicates an abnormal development of the lymphoid system. Another reason is chronic and infectious diseases. There is absolute lymphopenia. It is typical for diseases associated with the immune system. It can occur as a result of leukemia, neutrophilia, leukocytosis and as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. This form can also develop in the presence of chronic liver disease. It can appear even in newborns. Such a disease can be diagnosed as early as the first week. In this case, the risk of death is very high.
Symptoms of the disease
To say that lymphocytes in children (the norm of which depends on age) are lowered, it is possible after the morphological study. If such a violation is established, the doctor will prescribe a specific treatment. Usually, lymphopenia passes asymptomatically. But some signs may indicate it. For example, reducing lymph nodes or tonsils. Sometimes their complete absence is possible. Symptoms include pyoderma, eczema and alopecia. Also mention should be made of hematological diseases, such as petechiae, jaundice and pallor. It is especially important to pay attention to the signs that indicate HIV infection. If the lymphocytes in the blood of a child are lowered, then he often has infections that are caused by very rare microorganisms. In order to assess immunodeficiency, it is necessary to carefully examine the patient.
Treatment of children
Once the lymphocytes in children have been examined (the norm is indicated in the table above), and the disease is identified, it is necessary to find and eliminate the factor that provokes it. If the patient has a deficiency of IgG, then, as a rule, he is prescribed an immunoglobulin intravenously. Those patients who have congenital immunodeficiency can be successfully transported hematopoietic stem cells.
Lymphocytes are above normal
Quite often, children are prescribed a common blood test. Lymphocytes, the norm of which depends on age, can be increased. One of the most common causes - the body is fighting infection. Quite often this phenomenon is observed in children who have suffered an infectious disease. Such a phenomenon should not bother their parents. However, it is obligatoryo You should consult a doctor to avoid the presence of diseases such as lymphosarcoma or asthma. There are other diseases that promote the increase of leukocytes in the blood. Among them is pertussis, lymphatic leukemia, various types of hepatitis, tuberculosis and measles.
Distinctive feature of lymphocytes
The main thing these white blood cells differ from other white blood cells is that they are able to simply pass into various tissues of the body and then simply return back. They are a kind of "censorship" in our body. Their specificity is that they supervise the entire immune system and very quickly are able to respond to the foreign body. Conventional leukocytes live only a few days, and the lymphocyte can live more than two decades. Some of its cells are able to live in man until his death. In their blood, an average of 30%. The main elements that exercise immune surveillance are the lymphocytes in children. The norm is 1 μl (5) 19-37 (1,200-3,000). All of them are divided into 3 groups, which carry out their own functions. These are T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and zero lymphocytes.
Thus, we see that lymphocytes are white blood cells, which are very important in the human body. Particular attention should be paid to those indicators that are below the norm or exceed it. This may be evidence of a serious enough disease. Therefore, it is necessary to take tests every year and, if necessary, immediately try to eliminate the cause. In this case, a positive outcome is possible. Try to be attentive to your health and your children!