Cows of milk breed: features of breeding
For an ordinary person, not connected with agriculture, a cow of any breed is a simple animal. Farmers are another matter. Those of them who are engaged in breeding and raising cattle for the sake of milk, know a number of features that determine the dairy breed of the cow. Here are the main criteria: a large udder, an elongated body, an insufficiently developed musculature.
There are dozens of breeds of cattle. But the cows of dairy productivity enjoy the greatest demand. Holstein, Yaroslavl, Kholmogorsky, red steppe and black-motley breeds are considered the most common in Russia. And literally everyone is endowed with certain advantages in comparison with others. For example, it can be the fat content of milk or its quantity. Meat of a cow of a dairy breed on the quality is a little inferior to the product received from cattle of other direction. Therefore, one should not expect from them a large increase in muscle mass.
Combined (or milky-meat) breeds of cows differ from other types of cattle by their versatility. They have a double productivity. This means that the animals have well developed not only dairy, but also meat qualities. One of them can be expressed more clearly. Then they are either milk-meat type or meat-dairy type. There are many of them. Breeds of meat and dairy cows: Simmental, Bestuzhev, Schwick, Kostroma and others. I must say that farmers often choose them for breeding on their farms.
It is considered the most common among dairy cattle. The number of this breed is perhaps the most numerous in the world. Her homeland is Holland, but she gained all the productive qualities she acquired on the American continent.
The Holstein dairy breed of cows is used by breeders to improve other black and variegated suits of cattle. Such animals in Canada and the USA have been specially perfected, achieving maximum fatness and abundance of milk yields from them.
When growing calves, as well as keeping and feeding cows, special technologies were used, the purpose of which was to create a new, more modernized dairy species of cattle. Thus, in these countries a large number of black-and-white cattle appeared, favorably differing from the original material.
It is believed that the improved cows of the Holstein dairy breed were obtained not by crossing, but by purebred breeding. Therefore, animals have good milk productivity, large size and capacity of the udder. It is not surprising that among the cows of this breed there are a lot of recorders for milk and not only.
Live weight of bulls basically makes from 950 to 1200, and cows - to 700 kg. Bulls are born with a body weight of up to 47 kg, heifers - 5 kg less. The udders of the cows are either cup-shaped or tubular. The milk yield varies from 3 to 3.5 kg per minute. A day from them you can get about 60-65 kg of milk with a double milking.
Its name speaks for itself. It was bred in the XIX century in the Yaroslavl province. For this purpose, a selection was made of the best animals from among the local cattle. With other breeds, it did not mix. This is evidenced, above all, by the suit of the cow of the Yaroslavl milk breed, as well as a peculiar ex-terrier and high fat content of the product obtained. The best animals give milk yields that reach the level of 11 thousand 600 kg of milk per year. For the greater part of Yaroslavl cows, milk with a fat content of 4% or more.
It was withdrawn in the XVII century in the territory of the Arkhangelsk province by means of national selection. Many experts believe that the cows of dairy breed Kholmogorsky have an admixture of Dutch black and motley.
Animals are well developed. Weight of calves at birth is from 30 to 35 kg. They are quite early. Weight of adult cows varies from 530 to 580, and bulls - 810-1000 kg. On average, the first calving occurs at 30 months.
Breeding plants that cultivate the Kholmogory breed determined the average yield of their animals. In 2004, it was 5,380 kg of milk with a fat content of 3.85% and a recoil intensity of 1.9 kg per minute.
The breeding of the Kholmogory breed continues with the method of purebred breeding with an admixture of blood of black and motley Holstein. The purpose of the selection is to improve the quality and milk yield of milk.
Red steppe rock
It has both advantages and disadvantages. Positive qualities include excellent acclimatization ability and responsiveness to good content and feeding. The disadvantages are low fat content of milk, late ripeness, bad muscles and a number of exterior deficiencies.
Farmer-breeders who would like to improve the red steppe breed of cows, it is first of all necessary to pay attention to the domestic selection. It should be carried out both on milk, and on live weight. In addition, it is necessary to achieve an increase in the content of milk protein and fat.
The quality of the product obtained in different farms is very different. The fat content of milk can fluctuate from 3.3 to 5.3%, which directly indicates the need to select the best animals within this breed.
This cow is especially popular in Russia. In recent years, black-mottled cows have been able to gain the trust of many livestock breeders due to their rather high productivity and good ability to acclimatize.
The trunk of this animal is slightly elongated, but proportional, the udder is large. The color is black and mottled. But due to some differences in the properties of local livestock and natural conditions, as well as in the level of breeding, several types and groups have appeared in the breed. They differ in appearance, and in fat content and milk yield.
Thus, black and motley cattle in the central regions of Russia were obtained by crossing Ostrofries and Dutch cattle with local Yaroslavl and Kholmogory cows. There are also signs of admixture of Simmental and Schwick rocks. These animals are large enough. Cows weigh up to 650, and bulls - about 1000 kg. Milk yields are relatively high, but still inferior in fat content to other groups.
Features of breeding
In the after-milk period, which lasts from 3-6 to 24 months, depending on the breed, the main task is to ensure the normal development and growth of heifers, their timely fertilization, and the formation of their maximum milk productivity.
Usually they are divided into age groups: 6-9, 9-12, 12-18 and 18-24 months. Each of the groups is held without a tether in the stalls in the territory of the fodder yard or in a room with a deep non-replaceable litter. Water is supplied with drinkers.
In the warm season, heifers usually walk on pastures. If the food there is not enough, then produce a fertilizer, which must contain a green mass of perennial and sown annual herbs, as well as concentrates. In winter, feeding should be two-time - in the morning and in the evening. In the diet, it is necessary to introduce: 25-30% concentrates, 40-45% silage and 28-33% silage. But still, the cow's milk of milk is inferior in quality to those that are specially bred for obtaining this product.
I must say that growing young heifers in all periods requires the creation of optimal conditions for their maintenance and feeding. This will in many respects contribute to the development of the right type of cows with high milk productivity.
Growing cattle for obtaining meat or milk is a good enough and profitable business. If the matter is put on stream, then it will not create any special problems for the owner. But it is worth remembering that cows of milk breed, the price of which is slightly higher than meat, require much more attention to themselves.
This kind of activity assumes that the owner of the enterprise has special knowledge and skills. It is necessary to approach competently the issues of keeping animals in the summer and winter seasons, how and to whom to give milk and meat, where to put manure, where to take food, etc. In addition, one must be able to understand the types of these animals and know all the quotations. For example, cows of milk. The price for them can vary from 40 to 55 thousand and on calves about 25 thousand rubles. Only after all these subtleties have been studied will it be possible to start breeding cows.