What tasks does the math class in the preparatory group involve?
Mathematics in kindergarten is not only an account of up to ten and back. The math course in the preparatory group implies the development of mathematical and logical skills for each child. In the future this base of skills will be fundamental in school education, where it is important not only to count, but also to build cause-effect relations. Therefore, in the Dow in mathematical exercises, more attention is paid to logical problems.
What logical methods of thinking includes mathematics?
For the preparatory group, the lesson should be arranged in such a way as to develop the child's logical techniques or mental operations: synthesis, classification, abstraction, analogy, seriation, generalization, comparison, construction, analysis.
The analysis tasks force the child to single out one object from a group of objects. For example, find a fruit from vegetables or collect only sour fruits. The child needs to analyze the properties of each subject and select one or more for specific conditions.
The tasks for synthesis require the connection of different characteristics into a single whole. For example, the traditional lesson in mathematics in the preparatory group for synthesizing is the search for balls from all subjects, then you need to select only the red balls, then collect the balls only not red. Tasks for the development of analysis and synthesis are similar.
Exercises for the seriation require the child to build rows according to an increasing or decreasing trait. If in a younger group such tasks imply the construction of pyramids, fir-trees or matryoshkas, in the preparatory group children can work with figures, figures, chopsticks.
Comparison, construction, classification, generalization
Particular attention is paid to the development of comparative skills, so that the child can identify the same and different characteristics of each subject. In the preparatory group, it may be tasks to identify items by 2-3 signs or search for numerous descriptive adjectives of an object (watermelon sun, snake ribbon).
On construction, the mathematics lesson in the preparatory group is also conducted at least 2 times a week. Each time children get jobs with complicated conditions. For example, in the first lesson, children did following the example of the educator, on the second task - from memory, the third time - according to the drawing, and at the last stage the verbal general task "fold the cat" is given.
Classification and generalization are essentially similar, like analysis and synthesis. Only in the first case it is necessary to divide the objects into groups, and in the generalization it is necessary to find similar signs in the objects. For example, the tasks of classification include the search for items by name, shape, size, color or several features (red buttons in a round container, and green beads in a square box). In this case, the teacher can call a distinction between objects or give an indefinite task: "Find what is common between objects" or "Divide the triangles into two groups," and the child searches for signs himself.
Many preschool children do any maths in the preparatory group perfectly, but they can not generalize the result of the work done. Therefore, it is important after each task to ask: "Why is this object lying in this group, and not in the one"? Such issues contribute to the development of a cause-effect relationship, the child learns to reason, build logical conclusions.
What kind of mathematical knowledge should senior eldership?
- Children should count to ten and back with any number.
- Preschool children should know how the numbers look from zero to ten.
- Within ten, children should quickly call "neighbors" of any number.
- Children should understand the meaning of signs: plus, minus, more, less, equal.
- Children must compare numbers within 10 (which is greater, which is less, the same).
- Preschoolers must find geometric figures: a triangle, a rectangle, a square, a circle.
- Children must relate the picture (number of objects) to the figure.
- Children should group objects on a specific basis.
- Children should compare objects by size, color, shape.
- Children must solve tasks in one action to subtract and add.
- Children should understand such terms as "later", "before", "right", "up", "left", "down", "before", "between", "for," etc.
These are exemplary mathematical ZUNS, which preschoolers must master. In each particular PRS, there is a program that determines what kind of mathematics will be. The preparatory group (the lessons are written in detail) requires more demonstration material and interesting logical tasks.
Children are not interested in solving examples of subtraction and addition. They need to save fairy-tale characters, solving the problems of villains. Therefore, the teacher needs to carefully prepare for the lesson, prescribing the software content, preliminary work, methodological techniques, demonstration and handouts, the structure and course of the lesson with direct speech and possible answers from children.