What are the main types of toys
Since ancient times, people have realized the need for toys for the development of the child. At first they were miniature copies of real objects. So, for girls, toys were of a household nature, for boys, hunting and agriculture were created. Later they were also an entertaining thing. It was also through toys that one could observe the cultural characteristics of each people.
History of toys
Archaeologists have repeatedly found different toys on the site of excavations. For example, in ancient Egypt, carved wooden figures of animals were found. They depicted cats, cows, dogs, tigers, etc. Also, types of toys with moving parts of the body were found, which indicates a complex product design. Similar items in large numbers found on the site of Pompeii, Greece and Rome. In addition to the figures, various ratchets and rattles were popular there. It was believed that their noise drives away evil spirits from the baby.
During the excavations in Siberia, animal figures, such as a mammoth, rhinoceros, and a tiger were discovered in large numbers. It's amazing, but despite the time of creation, they were executed with amazing accuracy. And on the territory of Ukraine were found objects made of soft stone and tusks of mammoth. Archaeologists have found that the age of the finds dates back to about the last era.
Separately it is necessary to talk about dolls. Their first prototypes were found in ancient Egypt. In ancient Rome and ancient Greece, they had a special role: before marriage, the girl played them, and then sacrificed the goddess of love. After such a ritual, it was believed that the union would be particularly strong.
The Middle Ages and further development
It is for sure not known how the toys developed in the Middle Ages. But the very word "toy" originated and gained its spread in the Renaissance. The country-progenitor consider France. It was there that caring mothers sewed pieces of cloth and filled them with straw, forming small pupae. Already in the XVI century, different types of children's toys began to produce to order and sell. But since they were made piece goods, they cost a lot of money, so they were only available to an aristocrat. Dolls at that time often acted as mannequins for fashion. Mass production of them appeared only in the XIX century.
Types of soft toys have become diverse after the development of industrial production. Then there was a fashionable tendency to print various patterns of toys in women's magazines. So, in 1879 a resident of a German town, chained to a wheelchair, sewed several Christmas presents to her nephews. Wonderful little animals won fame from their neighbors, and soon orders fell on Margaret. After a while she was able to open a workshop where she worked with her sisters. A few years later she had already founded a factory where many kinds of toys were created.
Creating a popular beast
Few people know, but this character did not appear right away. Margaret patented a soft toy in the form of a bear cub. His peculiarity was that he leaned on four paws. A year later, a teddy bear appeared, which for ever went down in history and became popular with children. Its feature was in the combination of a hinged doll and a soft toy.
Why did the bear become Teddy?
Everyone knows that the teddy bear by default is called Teddy. Where did this tradition come from? Since the birthplace of the bear was Germany, one of the Russian emigrants took away a funny toy in the US and placed it in the shop window. Visitors were delighted with the novelty, and orders were showered on the bench with orders. Therefore, the owners of the store have established the production of bears and asked permission to call them Teddy. Then the president was Roosevelt.
In parallel, the story of how the president refused to shoot a bear, which was specially brought to him, became popular in the newspapers. He justified this by saying that hunting should be honest - you, gun and beast. Then the chances of all are equal.
Some dolls did not become toys in the truest sense of the word. For example, porcelain products more became an object of decor and won fame in adult collectors. The mass production of such specimens worsened their quality, so only the beauties made in a single copy were valuable. Such dolls had individual features, names, unique clothes. The master devoted a lot of time to the creation of his brainchild.
Becoming an object for collecting, porcelain dolls turned into characters of eerie stories, as it was believed that a striking resemblance to real people makes them a repository for demons or evil spirits.
Their minus is the severity and fragility of the material. Therefore, such products can not be considered a full-fledged toy for children. Masters and to this day make porcelain dolls in small copies or in a single copy.
Special toys for the Slavic people
Every nation in the world has its own special toys. For example, a matryoshka doll has long been considered a symbol of Russia. In fact, the Slavs it appeared only in the late 19 th century and served as a prototype of the Japanese hollow toy with figurative figures. They were talismans from evil forces. As a result, Russian craftsmen Konovalov and Zvezdochkin created a red-cheeked girl. But in fact, the types of folk toys in Russia are not limited to matryoshkas. For example, the very first fun for a newborn baby is ratchets and rattles. For their production, poppy heads and dry peas were used. From the clay two halves were molded, inside put peas or a head, after a piece fastened. Ratchets were made even easier: the wooden plates were attached to the handle, which, during the rotation, began to creak and make noise. Such devices were important for acquaintance of the kid with the world of sounds.
What kinds of toys were popular in Russia? For girls, they made rag dolls. They are strikingly different from modern specimens. They can not be considered primordially Russian, since all the nationalities had dolls, but in Russia they had their own peculiarities. They were made from straw and rags.
In Ukraine, such a toy was called motanka, in Rus - twist. The doll was not so much fun for the child, but as an amulet for him. Therefore, traditionally it was done by the mother, by reading special conspiracies. The peculiarity of rag dolls was in the absence of a face. Someone may think that the reason for this is laziness of the master. In fact, this was due to superstition: the eyes can "jinx" the child, because, by drawing a face, a person can impart an object to an evil spirit. Psychologists are sure that such a doll without a face gives an excellent impetus to the development of the imagination. Another belief was associated with the ban on the use of stabbing and cutting objects in the manufacture of the pupa. Since it should be done with love, so the cloths were just tearing their hands.
It is noteworthy that up to seven years the types of toys for children were the same. That is, both girls and boys played with dolls. Children up to this age did not share on the floor and wore identical shirts up to the heels. Even then, boys were put on pants, and girls - dresses. It is interesting that there was no game of "daughter-mother", but there was a "wedding", where the role of the groom was played by a twig. So the girls were preparing for a future marriage.
With the development of pottery, more types of toys for children have appeared. While men were engaged in the manufacture of household utensils, women sculpted cute figurines for toddlers. After modeling, they were burned in the oven and received full-function toys. Colorfully painted, they for a long time enthralled the child. Mostly clay was made by soldiers, animals and compositions (weddings, tea parties, etc.). Over time, in some regions of Russia, there were special clay toys.
Toys made of clay
So, the authentic kind of toys for Russia - Dymkovskie. They were created in the city of Vyatka. Initially these were whistles in the form of animals. But in the future of red clay who did not just sculpt! There were riders, and animals, and ladies. A bright palette of colors, unforgettable motives made this type of toys the brand of Russia. Most often used characters such as sheep, turkeys, nannies with children, deer, buffoons and much more.
Many types of toys were based on someone's ideas. Thus, the inhabitants of the village of Kargopol slightly modified the Dymkovo specimens and invented their toys. Their peculiarity was that the figures wore traditional clothes, and mythical animals appeared, for example, centaurs and fauns. They were also dressed in national costumes.
In the Tula region came up with toys, the distinguishing feature of which was a tricolor coloring. Most often these were green, yellow and crimson colors. Also all the characters had a very long neck. As scenarios, scenes with my mother, who had an animal and a child, were most often used.
Every country has its own unique toys. For example, Nenets children were amused with dolls in national costumes. They did not have ears, eyes and faces, since it was believed that with such organs the doll would take away the soul of the child. The realism of the toy was not welcomed, as it could come to life and kill the child.
A special place in Japan is occupied by such kinds of toys as kokeshi and Daruma. Kokeshi is a wooden doll. Her body was cylindrical, and her head was round. The whole body was covered with patterns. Daruma - doll-tumbler, the personification of Bodhidharma, the deity of fortune. It is made of wood or papier-mache, has no arms and legs. According to legends, limbs atrophied after nine years of meditation. With the daruma the tradition is connected with making a wish. Having formulated it, you need to draw a pupil puppet. It takes a year to keep it in a conspicuous place, and if the desire is fulfilled, the puppet is finished with the second eye, and if not, it is burned. So the deity will be clear that other ways of realizing the desire are being sought.
New Year's and Christmas
In addition to toys for children, for the history of the existence of mankind there are special traditions of decorating sacred trees. This custom was also with the Gentiles, with which rituals were performed and donations were made. In today's world, we can not imagine life without trees. There were popular Christmas toys, the kinds of which were not limited to balls. For example, in the Middle Ages the green beauty was adorned with products: waffles, sweets, fruits, etc. It had a religious basis. So, apples were a symbol of the forbidden fruit, which was frustrated by Eve. Wafers belong to the Communion. Already later a tradition appeared to decorate a tree with paper figures.
In Germany, new types of Christmas toys were invented: Christmas balls of different colors, garlands, angels. But it was entertainment for rich people. Fashion for the balls came in the 19th century. The first specimens were made of glass and covered with a lead solution, which made them strong, but heavy. Even later, the master learned to blow thin glass balls. Then they began to paint and cover with patterns.
During the war, toys were made by their own hands, the kinds of which were extremely diverse. Thus, a star was easily constructed from bulbs and beakers. And from the paper, parachutists were created. On postcards painted Santa Claus, who kills enemies.
Kinds of developing toys for children of preschool age
In recent decades, it has become popular to engage in early child development. Developed methods and manuals, stores offer a wide range of goods on the topic. For example, for the development of motor skills it is useful to sculpt and draw. This requires only paper, paint, pencils, plasticine. On the Internet you can find a wide variety of materials for classes. Do not try to teach a child from a small age academic design, so you just turn away from class. Psychologists call for using not only brushes, but also own fingers, foam sponges, etc., as a tool for applying paints.
Not so long ago in Russia there was a novelty - "kinetic sand". Possessing physical properties of sand, it can be molded into different figures, since it does not crumble. This material is toxic and not harmful to children.
It is important to use ordinary cubes for the development of spatial imagination. They come in different sizes, colors, with or without drawings, they can be used to build houses and turrets. Since the types of wooden toys are diverse, the cubes are one of them. It is an eco-friendly and safe material, also pleasant to the touch. Another alternative for one-year-old children is soft cubes. They are easy to shift, compress, they will not cripple the child. But at the same time, their danger is that the child does not form a logical connection between form and weight. There is a kind of cubes that need to be folded in a certain sequence and get a picture. They can be printed on letters, which allows them to be used in teaching reading.
The main types of toys for physical education
It is difficult to argue with the fact that, in addition to spiritual education, it is necessary to give physical education. After all, health is pawned from childhood, and in the nature of the child it is natural to want to move. For this, sports toys are used. For example, hoops and balls are needed for the development of general motor skills, and the skipping rope is for endurance. They also include scooters, bicycles, etc. Separately worth mentioning games such as table football and the like.
No less popular is to arrange all sorts of sports complexes in the child's room. So he can give a way out of his activity and physically exercise. As a rule, the complexes consist of rings, a Swedish wall, ropes. It all depends on the size of the room. Any toys of this group are aimed at the development of physical data. So, the game "small towns", whose task is to knock down the design of the dice, is aimed at developing the eye.
Theatrical and musical toys
Already in ancient times people clearly realized that different kinds of children's toys solved different tasks. For example, musical toys were created for the development of special hearing. They are used during children's holidays and in a game of their own. They can be miniatures of real objects: xylophones, metalophones, drums, etc. For the development of speech it is considered useful to play a certain rhythm on them and ask the child to repeat it.
There are also story musical toys. For example, if you perform certain actions with the subject, a melody will play. Some types of soft toys are equipped with a miniature player. Pressing the button will play a song. In recent years, because of the large abundance of counterfeit, such types of toys, rather, are harmful, because they do not meet the quality criteria: aesthetics, production of good materials and euphoniousness.
Separately it is worth mentioning theatrical kinds of toys. They can be puppets, bibabos, plot figures, etc. The peculiarity is that using them, you can create a small representation. At the same time, experts do not recommend using them in everyday life, as they should be associated with the holiday.
Constructors and stuff
There are different types of toys, photos of which can be seen in the article. For the development of spatial imagination it is useful to use constructors and building materials. To technical toys can be attributed different vehicles, household items, such as cameras or spyglasses. They can be equipped with small motors and engines, which makes the subject fascinating for children.
Despite a wide range of products in stores, it is still popular to make toys with their own hands. Their species are diverse. They can be created for theatrical performances, story-role games and other needs. They can be skillfully executed, but can be made on a quick hand. Also, the creation of toys is used in the activity of schoolchildren for the upbringing of the skill of creation.
When choosing toys, remember that they must be made of quality material. Do not skimp on children, because at best a cheap toy will break, and at worst it will harm the child (low-quality materials can be toxic). Choose trusted stores.
From an early age, the child should be surrounded by toys, since his primary activity in the preschool age is play. Different types of toys allow him to comprehensively develop. It is useful periodically to hide some objects and get others, then they do not have time to get bored. Also remember that for a certain age their toys are selected.