What are the mastiffs: varieties and photos
It happens that in a good family movie you can see a big dog that literally draws attention to itself by its devotion, calmness and understanding of everything around. Most often such a handsome man turns out to be a mastiff breed. While watching a movie, the thought may come that it's all a fairy tale, and a big dog can not be so friendly. In fact, few know what kind of dogs they are. What are mastiffs?
History of the origin of the breed
Historians can not yet come to a common opinion about the occurrence of the Mastiff breed. This is due to the fact that the history of this dog has more than one hundred and even a thousand years. But nevertheless there is a common opinion that initially they were fighting dogs. They originated in Asia, in the central and middle parts of it. They were then used mainly for protection against wild animals, and some of them took part in military battles. From Asia, the breed spread throughout the land, acquiring individual characteristics of character and appearance and becoming more calm and good-natured.
What are the mastiffs: breeds (basic) and their description
Razbredyas throughout the world, mastiffs have acquired different traits of character and appearance. So there are different breeds, there are eight of them. The most common varieties of mastiff are English, Tibetan and Spanish.
According to the main version, the English mastiff was brought to the UK in the last century. Breeders then began to breed and crossed the mastiff with local dogs. Today the mastiff is a powerful animal with a large broad head with folds and a large rib cage, a muscular body and straight strong limbs. Eyes and ears are widely set, the nose is large and flat, the hair is short.
The breed of Spanish mastiff was originally taken out specially for the protection of domestic animals, and, perhaps, therefore, the character of the dogs was quite fierce. But over time, everything changed, and the animal became very friendly. Unlike other species of the breed, the Spanish mastiff has a proportional physique. The wool is slightly wavy and elongated (a maximum of six centimeters).
Tibetan mastiff is considered one of the oldest representatives of the Mastiff breed. The external appearance was formed taking into account its vital activity (they were engaged mainly in grazing livestock), as well as the habitat of the animal (mountain severe climate). And even in modern times, he often resembles a lion. The coat is thick and long, the head and chest are rather wide. The color of the eyes often coincides with the color of the coat. The general impression is that the mastiff is very large, but not massive.
Life spans are different for all dogs. What are mastiffs, if we talk about this issue? Tibetan Mastiff has the longest life expectancy. On average, it is 12-15 years, and the fixed maximum is as much as 19 years!
A few more varieties
And what kind of mastiffs are there, besides the main ones mentioned above? This bullmastiff, Italian, Neapolitan, Pyrenees and French.
In the fifties of the 19th century the English mastiff was crossed with a bulldog. As a result, a new breed has emerged - bullmastiff - a guard dog and a guard of the grounds. Outwardly it is a graceful and at the same time powerful animal. The head is wide, its shape is more like a square. Otherwise, this breed is very similar to its ancestor.
Molossian dogs, crossed with English bulldogs, formed a new breed of French mastiff or Bordeaux bulldog. They were used first in the battles of gladiators and dog fights, and later, like all other mastiffs, for the protection of territory and livestock. Outwardly this breed is distinguished by squat and thick skin with folds.
Cane Corso, or Italian mastiff, in the Middle Ages equally well guarded cattle and hunted wild animals. A distinctive external feature of this breed is a large head - its length is the third part of the dog's growth. The constitution is strong and at the same time elegant. The coat is usually black, short and shiny.
Before becoming a pet, the Neapolitan mastiff had time to visit both a warrior, a watchman, and even a criminal (more precisely, his assistant). Outwardly he, like all mastiffs, is strong. The head is wide, and the folds are not only on the head, but also on the neck.
The Pyrenean mastiffs came from the Spanish by separating a small group in the northern part of the country. The wool of this breed is elongated, especially on the neck and chest.
What other mastiffs are there? Description of the breed of Japanese mastiff
In addition to the main eight breeds, there is one more that is slightly different from the rest. This is a Japanese mastiff.
This species began to be taken out a long time ago (several hundred years ago), and its only purpose was participation in dog fights. Japanese mastiff is also called Tosa Inu (after the name of the principality in which the breed was taken) and Sumo wrestlers (for the technique of fighting). The breed is fairly rare in Japan and not very common in other countries.
A good musculature relief, a wide head with strong jaws and developed cheekbones - all this makes up a general portrait of the Japanese mastiff. Color often red (pure or its shades) or brindle, there are bright marks.
Tosa-inu is bred today not only for fighting, but also as a housing guard. The education of such a dog should be entrusted to an experienced person.
Weight characteristics and growth of the mastiff breed
To better understand what kind of mastiffs are, a description of their average weight and height indices is conveniently considered in the table (the hyphens denote the indicators of the female and male individuals).
By average indicators, it is clear that the English and Tibetan mastiffs are slightly larger than the rest, the first being the largest representative of the breed and even hit the Guinness Book of Records for its size.
Character and color of mastiff
At first glance it may seem that the mastiff is a big aggressive dog, which it is better not to approach closely, and even more so it is impossible to start it in a house where there are small children. Is it so? But in fact, what are mastiffs?
The nature of this breed, as a rule, is calm. They are balanced, for no reason they do not even vote. But, depending on the variety, there are some distinctive features. So, the Spanish mastiff, for example, loves the praise of the owner, very sensitive to the mood of the surrounding people and the approaching danger. English needs to be loved and loved, loves when emotions are shown towards him. The Neapolitan mastiff differs in that for him there is only one master, the separation with which he is hard to endure.
And what kind of dogs are mastiffs in color? Different breeds suggest different colors. A distinctive feature of the English mastiff is the mandatory black mask on the face. A common color is usually fawn or apricot. Bullmastiff, in addition to the mask, still has spots around the eyes, and wool is monophonic, usually red or yellow-brown. The French mastiff must be of a monophonic color, only light marks on the fingers and chest are permissible. The brightest in color is the Pyrenean mastiff. On the white color of his coat there are darker spots: gray, black, red.
Now you know who the mastiffs are. The photos presented in the article will give a complete picture of these dogs.
When you start any dog, you should think about its contents. Therefore, the following question is important: in terms of care and maintenance, these dogs are what? There are mastiffs (varieties have been examined by us) with short hair, and they do not require frequent bathing, enough combing (usually during the change of wool). The Tibetan mastiff, on the other hand, needs to be combed. The large size of these dogs suggests keeping them in a private house, but living in a spacious apartment is not excluded. For all mastiffs walking is mandatory, and the Tibetan breed requires also good physical exertion.
What to feed the mastiff
When compiling a mastiff's diet, several rules should be considered:
- For a young pet is very important to use cottage cheese, preferably every day.
- With the growth of the puppy, the number of meals should be reduced from five to two times (after a year).
- Food should be balanced and contain products average in fat content (not more than 25%) and protein composition (no more than 8%).
- It is important that calcium, phosphorus and iodine are also present in the food, but in reasonable quantities.
- You can not overfeed the mastiff. This will lead to obesity and stress on the musculoskeletal system.
- Calculation of food for a healthy adult dog is as follows: 1 kg of weight mastiff per day 60 grams of food, half of which must consist of meat.
Correctly selected food with the addition of minerals and vitamins will help to grow a healthy pet.
Relationship with children and adults
Mastiffs are considered to be excellent friends of the whole family. Bullmastiff loves children and will never harm them, and adults will not bother with their presence. The Tibetan breed is very friendly to everyone around (unlike a Bordeaux that does not favor outsiders), but, being a guard of its territory, will not let a stranger come close.
It is interesting
Studies of the origin of various animal species may well answer the question of what kind of dogs these are. Mastiffs Chinese - this name is sometimes given to Pekingese. Some cynologists adhere to this point of view because of the similarity of the physique, including the shape of the head. Similar hypotheses concern pugs and molosses, from which mastiffs originated. But right at the moment it is believed that the ancestors of pugs are still dwarf dogs.
Before deciding to purchase a mastiff in your family, you should weigh all the pros and cons. To do this, you should evaluate, first, the size of the dog. If the apartment is small, and besides in the family there are very young children or elderly people, then you will have to abandon the idea. Secondly, the financial position is of no small importance, since a large dog requires considerable expenses. This is nutrition, and veterinary care, and utensils, and many more. Do not choose a mastiff, if in the daytime no one is home. Dogs of this breed are very sensitive and do not tolerate loneliness. Required walks, which must be long.
But if there are no problems with a large area, obsession with cleanliness (many dogs are drooling), and there is a desire to get a real friend, then the mastiff is absolutely the right choice!