How to distinguish stearin candles from paraffin candles? How to make stearin candles with your own hands
Humanity since the opening of the fire was looking for ways to maintain it. First, this function was performed by the torch, in which the resin burned. It was poured into the recess of the handle of wood. However, the torch was short-lived because of the burning of the handle. The resin was poured into clay and glass vessels. Along with resin burned animal and vegetable fats. Moreover, a piece of moss, a bunch of plant fibers, and then a piece of twine or a strip of cloth fell into the burning material. This prototype of the wick laid the beginning of the wick light.
History of the lamp
The first lamps were not perfect. They were terribly smoked, and the light from them was weak and often faded.
Later, the clay bowl turned into a closed kettle, into which the wick was threaded. So there was an oil lamp, a few hundred years has become the best source of lighting. Her flame was brighter, but at burning the lamp smoked. Soot helped to overcome the invention of tube glass.
History of the candle
Another descendant of the torch is a candle. First the candles were made from wax or fat. They appeared in the X century AD. The easiest way was to make tallow candles. The wick fell into molten bacon, it was taken out, the fat on it froze. And this procedure was repeated several times to create a candle of the required thickness. Much later, special shapes for candles appeared, in which molten wax or lard was poured.
There was not much light from the tallow candle, but soot soot. Because of this, several such candles were lit at the same time in the room. Then a candelabrum was invented - a candlestick having branches for fixing several items.
Material for the replacement of fat was required for a long time, but was found at the dawn of the XIX century. For the candles, stearin, which was an integral part of fat, began to be used. So was born stearin candle. When it appeared, it instantly gained popularity, displacing the greasy. It burned brighter, not giving a deposit and not smearing hands. Stearin candles have surpassed the predecessor in all respects. And to apply steel everywhere.
Many argue about what appeared earlier - a kerosene lamp or stearin candle. Stearic acid, from which candles were made almost immediately, was invented in 1816. Kerosene replaced oil in lamps only in the middle of the XIX century.
Properties of candles
At first, the material for candle production was wax and paraffin. Later, stearin was used. Paraffin and stearin have different physical and chemical characteristics, which leaves a mark on the difference in the candles made from these materials.
Paraffin is a product of oil refining, which is a mixture of various hydrocarbons. And the stearin contains glycerin and stearic acid. It refers to esters. This caused a different melting point: for paraffin, from 36 to 55 ° C, while for stearin from 55 to 72 ° C. This makes stearin products harder, giving the opportunity to better keep the shape. The flame temperature of the stearic candle reaches 1500 ° C, and the paraffin flame reaches 1400 ° C.
When candle production is almost not used paraffin and stearin in its pure form. More often they are mixed in different proportions. Usually, stearin candles are used, the composition of which is 96% palm oil and 4% paraffin.
How to distinguish a stearin candle from a paraffin candle? In life, paraffin is distinguished from stearin by the use of alkali. When alkali reacts with stearin, the result is a soap, which under the influence of acid precipitates. Paraffin is neutral with respect to the alkali solution, so nothing will change.
Stearin most often serves as a raw material for the manufacture of a variety of decorative products.
Manufacture by own hands
If in the old days candles were used to ensure normal lighting of rooms, nowadays, stearin candles are increasingly becoming an interesting decorative element that can create a romantic or solemn atmosphere.
Now in the specialized shops a lot of items of candle production are sold, both the simplest ones and those that amaze the imagination with their quaintness and originality. At the same time, such decorations are quite amenable to independent production using simple materials that are freely available. The creation of this decor by our own hands does not need too much financial expenditure and does not take much time. At the same time, giving the will of your indomitable imagination and putting your soul into your work, you will create an unprecedented thing that can give joy to you and others.
We will perform miracles from stearin, paraffin or wax. It's best for people who first start building candles to start their experiments with paraffin, since working with it is the simplest. Paraffin is either bought in the store, or obtained from ordinary household candles of white color or their cinder.
Also, stearin is not difficult to get from ordinary household soap. To do this, you need to rub the soap on a large grater or adjust with a knife. Then the resulting chips are placed in a container of metal, completely filled with water and sent to a water bath for melting. After dissolving the soap, it is removed from the fire, after which vinegar is added to the resulting composition. On the surface appears a mass of thick consistency, which after the final cooling can be removed with a spoon. This substance is stearin. It should be washed with running water and wrapped in a clean cloth to remove excess moisture.
The best wick can serve as a cotton thread of great thickness. You can use a twisted or braided moulin. Artificial materials to create a wick absolutely not suitable, because they quickly burn out, while producing a disgusting smell. The easiest way to get the wick from ordinary candles.
Shape, colors, utensils
A variety of capacities can serve as a form. These can be sand molds or coffee cans. If you want to make a decoration narrower to the top or round, you need to take a container that is used as a form, for example a ball made of plastic. It is necessary to make a longitudinal incision and make a hole in the upper part of the mold, having a diameter of at least ten millimeters, so that it is possible to fill the composition unhindered.
As the dyes, you can use wax crayons, food colors or natural substances, for example, cocoa. Dyes that have water or alcohol as a base are not suitable.
You will also need dishes: a pot or a bowl of small dimensions is suitable. It is important that it is conveniently placed on a water bath.
Additional materials are necessary in order to give beauty to your work. In addition, you can use any aromas. The use of additional substances can be limited only by your imagination. It can be beads, shells, sequins, and from the smells - cinnamon, vanilla, essential oils.
It is necessary to crush the raw material that is selected for work and subject it to a water bath. When using household candles, the wick is extracted from them. In case of application of the remains of candles already used, they must be cleaned of dark soot. Unhurriedly stirring the mass, achieve its full melting. The prefabricated wick must be lowered several times in a mass so that it is well impregnated.
In the composition, you need to add paint and flavor. When using wax crayons, they must first be crushed by means of a fine grater. If two or more colors are used immediately, it is possible to achieve a marble color. When the mass is divided into several parts and they are painted in different colors, it becomes possible to produce a multi-colored product.
The form that is chosen for crafting, it is necessary to grease with vegetable oil or dishwashing substance. To fix the end of the wick, use a pencil, toothpick or stick. It is mounted on the mold so that its free end lies approximately in its middle part and reaches the bottom. To make the design more reliable, the free part of the wick is supplied with a weight.
The melted mass is poured into the mold, after which it is necessary to wait until it has completely solidified. Then the candle is pulled out for the wick. If it is difficult to remove the product, it is necessary to immerse the mold for a short time in a vessel with hot water.
Stearin candles are decorated in many ways. You can place dried flowers and seeds on the edges of the mold. Then carefully pour the hot mass into it. To make a coffee candle you need to sprinkle the bottom of the mold with a layer of coffee beans, make them fill with a liquid mass, and put coffee beans on top again. Decoration of seashells, beads and rhinestones do, waiting for the product to harden and remove it from the mold. Fastening of decorative elements occurs by means of glue. Such a stearin candle, the photo of which is given above, will present a holiday to you and your loved ones.