Hyperechogenic focus in the left ventricle of the fetal heart: diagnosis, causes
During the second scheduled ultrasound, a hyperechoic focus in the left ventricle of the fetal heart is often found. This inclusion is a small point - an additional chord that does not cause any harm to the child, but provided that the presence of chromosomal pathologies is excluded.
Description of diagnosis
At the location of the location of the point, the compaction of the cardiac tissue is detected, it can be caused by:
- deposits of salts;
- presence of pathology in the chromosome set;
- the presence of an additional chord that does not affect the full function of the heart.
If the cause of the appearance of a white point in the heart cavity is a large number of salts, then by the third trimester it disappears and does not bear any consequences for the fetus. The same applies to the chord, it can cause noise in the heart to a certain age (usually take place in 2-3 years), or disappears before birth. In any case, if it is available, it is necessary to regularly examine the child from a cardiologist.
The danger is only a diagnosis, found in combination with chromosomal abnormalities. In this case, compaction of the myocardium carries a danger to the life of the child.
A hyperechogenic focus in the left ventricle of the fetal heart may indicate the presence of Down's syndrome, if pathological chromosome markers were detected in the analysis of blood in a pregnant woman.
At what time the heartbeat of the fetus can be heard
The heart rate falls on the fourth week of pregnancy. In a week, transvaginal ultrasound can detect myocardial contractions. The ultrasound examination by an abdominal sensor can be carried out at the eighth week. If at this time there are no contractile processes of the myocardium, then we can conclude that pregnancy is fading.
After the formation, the heart contracted with a frequency of 110-130 strokes, then the amount increases significantly to 170-190 (the peak falls on the eighth week), and after that heart beats in the fetus again decrease to 120-160 per minute and practically do not change until delivery.
Listening to the heartbeat using a stethoscope is possible only from the twentieth week, it is available only to experienced doctors. Independently to listen, as the heart of the child beats, it is possible already on the thirtieth week.
Diagnostics of GEF
Detection of the syndrome of "golf ball" is carried out with ultrasound. After this, it is advisable to visit an additional 3D ultrasound, and also the attending physician may direct the pregnant woman to echocardioscopy of the fetus. Most often this study is prescribed:
- pregnant women over 35 years of age;
- if at an early age the mother had infectious diseases;
- in the presence of a pregnant (or relatives) pathologies of the heart or diabetes;
- after revealing on a planned ultrasound pathology in the heart;
- at a backlog of development of a fruit and its or his sizes;
- when detecting markers that indicate chromosomal abnormalities.
Hyperechoic focus in the left ventricle of the fetal heart can be examined with echocardioscopy for a period of 18-28 weeks, after which a full examination can not be made, as the child's size will be too large to qualitatively examine the size and condition of his heart.
During the examination, all the cavities of the heart are measured. Normally, these indicators should be within:
- the length of the right ventricle is 0.5-1.75 cm;
- the width of the right ventricle is 0.4-1.1 cm;
- the length of the left ventricle is 0.9-1.8 cm;
- the width of the left ventricle is 0.44-0.89 cm;
- the ratio of the left ventricular width to the right - 0.45-0.9 cm;
- the aortic aperture 0.3-0.52 cm;
- the mouth of the pulmonary artery - 0.3-0.5 cm;
- mitral opening 0.35-0.6 cm;
- tricuspid opening - 0,3-0,63 cm;
- the number of heartbeats - 140-160 beats / minute.
The size of the fetal heart has its own characteristics and is significantly different from the size of an adult person, since all organs correspond to the size of the body. The pathology of the heart with this survey is always revealed, so do not worry about the unprofessionalism of the uzista, if the diagnosis is not confirmed or the doctor says that this does not pose a threat to the child.
What needs to be done when identifying the GEF
The GEF in the heart of the fetus presupposes the appointment of additional planned examinations by the doctor. These include:
- Ultrasound of the child's heart with dopplerography;
- CTG (cardiotocography);
- 3D or 4D ultrasound.
If the diagnostic methods carried out have not refuted the presence of heart pathologies (that is, when pathological markers are present in the blood and these signs are confirmed on ultrasound), it is recommended to visit genetics.
This study is a very serious step, as it carries a greater risk of miscarriage or pregnancy fading. Therefore, it is necessary to take cord blood or amniotic fluid in the most extreme cases.
The pathology of the heart can be insignificant, then the genetic doctor will not direct to such a dangerous diagnosis. However, when confirming the diagnosis on a volume ultrasound, it is better to consult a professional about the danger of GEF for the baby's life.
Hyperechogenic focus in the left ventricle of the fetal heart: the causes
The occurrence of an echogenic focus in the heart of a child can be a consequence of the mineralization of the vessels of the heart muscle, an individual heart feature (which reveals an additional septum in the heart in the form of a small chord) or chromosomal pathologies, in particular Down's syndrome.
The fetus develops very quickly, and its body and the vital systems of the body are further developed. That is why you need to regularly monitor the fetus, which will allow you to detect possible development problems in time or prevent them before the appearance of the first symptoms.
In the presence of pathological chromosomal markers in the mother's blood, developmental abnormalities in the child are finally confirmed. In this case, the parents must decide whether to have additional examinations or to terminate the pregnancy.
Implications of the diagnosis for a child
Normally, the extra chord of the left ventricle in the child disappears at the end of the third trimester, but it can also be in the heart all life, without bearing a threat to health. You need to know about this and, if necessary, inform the pediatrician, as when listening there is a probability of making the wrong diagnosis due to the presence of noises in the heart.
It is also recommended to register with a pediatric cardiologist and be regularly monitored for pathology. As a rule, by the age of three, the child disappears any signs of involvement in the heart muscle, then the doctor makes a conclusion about the absolute health of the child.
Is it worth worrying about this diagnosis?
As a rule, the hyperechoic focus in the left ventricle of the fetal heart does not pose a danger to the child. After the birth and scheduled examination by the doctor, there are no abnormalities in children, only minor noises are possible with an additional chord.
When the child reaches the age of 2-3 months, for greater peace of mind, you can make a heart ultrasound, which details all the sizes of cavities and valve openings, the number of additional chords and the overall condition of the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, a diagnosis of heart health and full compliance with age characteristics will be written (usually an open oval window is found for children up to a year).
Only in a small percentage of cases, an additional chord of the left ventricle in a child can lead to heart disease or other pathologies. But for this purpose there is not enough one presence of the "golf ball" syndrome, it is necessary to accurately confirm the danger through the sampling of amniotic fluid or blood from the umbilical cord and the presence after the diagnosis of blood pathological markers, indicating the presence of chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus.