What happens at the 12th week of pregnancy?
12th week of pregnancy is the final stage of the first trimester. During this time, from the cell that is visible under the microscope, a small man has already developed, capable of doing some movements.From this period begins the second trimester of pregnancy, during which a woman can rest from the unpleasant symptoms of the first weeks and prepare for a responsible third trimester. From 12 weeks of pregnancy the size of the fetus, the sex of the child can already be seen on ultrasound.
Many future mothers ask: "The doctor gave me 12 weeks of pregnancy. How many months? ". Pregnancy lasts 40 weeks - this is 9 ordinary months or 10 lunar (obstetric). In the usual month, 30-31 days, and in the lunar month - clearly 4 weeks - 28 days. This is to facilitate the observation of fetal development: each week is characterized by certain parameters, which makes it possible to suspect the slightest violations during intrauterine development of the child.
If you have 12 weeks of pregnancy, how many months this table will tell you.
If you look at the ratio, then 12 weeks of pregnancy - it's 84 days. If divided into a calendar month (31 days), then it's 2 months and 22 days.
Changes in the body of the mother
At 12 weeks of pregnancy, what happens in the body of mother and fetus? What new sensations can a woman have? If the first weeks are dangerous premature termination of pregnancy, then at this time the probability of self-abortion is minimal. The placenta is already formed, it begins to fulfill its function of feeding the baby, removing the products of metabolism and synthesizing the proteins of pregnancy. The rate of blood flow in it increases to 600 ml per minute.
Progesterone - the main hormone of pregnancy - begins to be produced not by the yellow body, but by the placenta. It regulates the contractility of the smooth muscles of the uterus, intestines, bladder and ureters. Therefore, frequent trips to the toilet stop, but there are constipation. Heartburn is a symptom that women start complaining about from the 12th week of pregnancy. The size of the fetus, the sex of the child, as our grandmothers felt, does not affect the origin of this unpleasant condition. This is explained by the relaxing effect of progesterone on the sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach.
Estrogen hormones do not cease to be produced: they also play an important role in the development of pregnancy. At week 12, estriol helps to increase mammary glands, nipples, fluid retention and increase in the amount of protein in the female body.
Muscular fibers of the uterus continue to increase and expand, and in the period from 12 weeks to 20 - especially intensively. The size of the uterus becomes like the head of a newborn child, the bottom reaches the womb. The speed of blood flow and the volume of circulating blood in the body due to new changes begin to increase.
The emotional background of the future mummy changes: fatigue, capriciousness, constant depression and discontent all disappear. From 12 weeks a woman seems to be born anew, her well-being improves and her efficiency improves. At the same time, bright and sometimes amazing dreams begin to appear to the future mother. This is due to the fact that fetal hormones act on the subcortex, which begin to circulate intensively, in addition, the size of the fetus increases significantly from 12 weeks of pregnancy. The sex of the child does not affect what hormones are produced by the placenta.
Hormones on this term
Impulses from the brain stimulate the production of growth hormone, which from the 12th week begins to prepare the genital organs of the mother for childbirth.
Prolactin starts to be produced from the 12th week of pregnancy. The size of the fetus also increases its production: the larger the baby, the greater the amount of this hormone in the blood. Under the influence of prolactin, the mammary glands grow and are prepared for their basic function: the production of colostrum and milk.
From the 12th week, cortisol, a hormone of the adrenal glands, is being intensively produced. This substance reduces the susceptibility of the organism of the future mother to stress and unfavorable influence of the environment, giving the opportunity to calmly nurture a pregnancy.
How to behave
The rules of conduct for this period are the same as during the entire pregnancy. Everything should be set up for the normal course of the gestation process. At 12 weeks of pregnancy, the size of the abdomen is not particularly increased, and it is possible to engage in mental and physical labor, but without overload and fatigue, which contributes to the proper operation of all systems and organs. You should avoid riding a bicycle, playing sports, which are accompanied by a concussion of the body - jumps and sharp movements. Since you can already report your pregnancy to your relatives and superiors, you need to be shielded from night shifts, heavy physical labor with lifting of gravity and prolonged sitting at the computer, working at altitude.
Physical exercises: for and against
Classes should be started only after consultation with your doctor. You can do yoga, physical education and not tiring sports. Quality nutrition, work and rest regime, fresh air and walking before going to bed contribute to a good mood, the physiological flow of all processes, and this is already felt by your baby.
New sensations on this term
The main uncomfortable symptoms begin to disappear: weakness, malaise, drowsiness go away, frequent urination worries less. However, the mood does not improve, and there may be causeless aggression. Food predilections gradually stop, and the desire for something unusual to eat disappears. But do not overeat on the joys that morning sickness and vomiting have disappeared, because the load on the organs of excretion and digestion increases. Under the influence of internal progesterone, the main effect of which is the preservation of pregnancy, constipation appears.
At 12 weeks of pregnancy, the size of the abdomen is not particularly increased, especially in primiparas and in women with body weight exceeding normal. In re-birth due to less elasticity of muscles and skin, the stomach becomes more noticeable. In case of multiple pregnancies, the size of the abdomen and uterus does not correspond to the time: they significantly exceed the weeks that are supposedly established on monthly basis. Measurement of the circumference of the abdomen and the height of standing above the womb of the uterus is already possible when visiting a woman's consultation. An increased pigmentation of the navel and a line connecting the womb with the umbilical ring begins to appear.
From this time there are changes on the skin: there may be rashes, acne, peeling. But these are isolated cases. Most often, increased blood circulation and estrogenic hormones in the body of the mother leads to the fact that the appearance of the skin improves, it becomes younger, there is a glint in the eyes and a blush on the face. A woman looks better than ever. There is a so-called internal glow - a sign on which they learn about your pregnancy.
The weight of the mother's body becomes more 1-2 kg - this is a normal increase. From this time, the pregnant woman is weighed at each turnout to control the weight and for early diagnosis of latent edema.
The future mother begins to feel the pulsation of the aorta, which mistakenly takes the fetus to move. From the 12th week the mammary gland enlargement begins, the nipples and nipples become darker, the woman feels slight tingling sensations and, at the same time, the tenderness and importance of her condition.
Development of the baby
During this period, all the internal organs of the child were formed. At 12 weeks of gestation, the size of the fetus and its weight increased almost 2-fold. It already weighs 14-15 g, its growth is almost 10 cm. The little man has pens, legs. The little face has eyes with eyelids, a mouth, a nose, finger nails formed, the first rudiments of muscles appeared. The ears of the baby are already in their place. The child can squeeze and unclench the cams, wiggle the toes, wrinkle, yawn, open and close the eyes, perform swallowing movements. The brain begins to split into two hemispheres, all its structures are formed, reflexes appear. The heart starts beating at a speed of 160-165 beats per minute. The bowel has taken its normal position in the abdominal cavity, the liver is already producing bile. Blood cells are represented by erythrocytes and leukocytes. There is a maturation of bone tissue and strengthening of muscles. Testosterone begins to be produced in boys, and the thyroid gland produces hormones. The immune system begins to function.
At 12 weeks of pregnancy, the photo of the fetus shows you how the baby has grown. This will be the first picture of the child.
It is from this period that the most interesting and surprising changes begin: the baby grows intensively, the functions of all his organs are perfected in order to later acclimatize to new living conditions outside of the abdomen after birth. At 12 weeks of pregnancy, a photo of the fetus on ultrasound will show you a child who has grown significantly since the moment of conception.
What does ultrasound show?
Mandatory studies in 12 weeks of pregnancy - ultrasound of the fetus and the determination of serum markers.
Ultrasound examination is conducted in order to see:
• fetal development according to the timing;
• heart work, rhythm with counting the number of heartbeats;
• condition of the placenta;
• the presence of a second fetus in the case of twins;
• signs of chromosomal abnormalities or malformations;
• state of myometrium: presence of nodes or hypertonia in the event of an interruption;
• other pelvic organs to identify pathological processes.
Ultrasound at this time can be carried out by an ordinary and vaginal sensor and helps to determine in 12 weeks of pregnancy the size of the fetus, the sex of the child, to measure all the main indicators. An important point: the exact date of birth. At 12 weeks of pregnancy, a photo of ultrasound will show you not an embryo, but a little man.
Be sure to measure the coccyx-parietal size of the fetus - the distance from the coccyx to the crown at the time of maximum extension of the baby. This measurement is carried out in the sagittal plane, which divides the body into two equal halves.
Ultrasound is not only necessary for determining the sex of the baby. Although at this time, with the availability of modern equipment, this is possible. The penis of the boy looks like an arrowhead, the sexual organs of a girl - in the form of two strips.
Many people want to find out at the 12th week of pregnancy the sex of the child with the aim of getting ready for birth: to buy the necessary clothes of the appropriate color, to prepare the eldest son or daughter for the birth of a younger brother or sister.
For doctors, ultrasound is needed to detect fetal malformations or chromosomal abnormalities. To do this, measure the collar space. In the norm this indicator is no more than 2.5 mm. If the thickness is 3 mm or more, this indicates the syndromes of Down, Edwards, Turner, Patau and other chromosomal abnormalities.
A good marker is to determine the length of the bones of the nose of the fetus. This indicator, if it is 2 mm or more, in 50-80% of cases indicates Down's disease.
In 12 weeks of pregnancy, ultrasound can also show such developmental defects: anencephaly - absence of cerebral hemispheres, acranium - absence of skull bones, ectopia of the heart - wrong position, umbilical hernia, abdominal wall defect, fused twins, complete atrioventricular blockade, which life is impossible, cystic lymphangina of the neck, defect of the anterior abdominal wall, etc.
About defects, parents should be informed to make a choice in favor of further prolongation of pregnancy or its interruption. During this period, abortion can still be carried out without serious complications for the woman.
Mandatory and additional studies
To determine the vices of all pregnant women, a blood test is performed on the quantitative composition of the serum markers of maternal blood: the free β-hCG subunit and the placental protein associated with pregnancy (PAPP-A). Ultrasound in conjunction with this study is called a screening test, which is not a definitive diagnosis, but only involves the development of a child with chromosomal abnormalities.
An accurate diagnosis can be made after invasive methods of prenatal diagnosis. At this time, a chorionic biopsy is possible. Do not be intimidated by this procedure. Currently, it is conducted under the supervision of ultrasound, and the risk of complications is minimized.
In some clinics, other sonographic examinations are carried out in addition to ultrasound. At your request, you can take photos of 3D and SPL at 12 weeks of pregnancy. On a boy or a girl, this research can show an unreliable result. Recheck and accurately know the sex of the child can be in 18-20 weeks with a repeated screening ultrasound.
Compulsory except for urine and blood tests is a test for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis, viral and bacterial infections.
Symptoms that should alert
It is necessary to know the dangerous symptoms that may appear in the 12 weeks of pregnancy. What happens to the baby, if suddenly the stomach starts to hurt or bleeding occurs?
With pain in the lower abdomen of a different nature, you should immediately call an ambulance or call your gynecologist. The reason for these pains is most often the threat of interruption at 12 weeks of pregnancy. Photo ultrasound will show the tone of the uterus, sometimes deformity and even detachment of the placenta. But sometimes there are pains that are not related to pregnancy. This appendicitis, lumbago, flatulence, foodborne infection, renal colic, the tension of the ligamentous apparatus of the uterus and others.
Discharge from the genital tracts of different color and volume is a symptom that requires immediate hospitalization in the gynecological department. This can signal a placental abruption and abortion. At 12 weeks of pregnancy, the ultrasound picture will show the exact location and size of the detachment. To treat such a symptom on this date, intensive maintenance therapy is needed.