20 weeks, ultrasound: norm, photo
Ultrasound examination is the most modern way to determine abnormalities in fetal development and problems with bearing. At 20 weeks, ultrasound is performed for the analysis of the most vital organs of the fetus and detection of malformations. If you do not identify possible problems in time, then interrupt pregnancy after 21 weeks will be contraindicated.
Fetal development on ultrasound (20 weeks): norm
The sixth month of pregnancy marks the active development of the fetal organs, the most intensive development of the reproductive system and skin. And:
- the fetus forms the rudiments of molars;
- already there is a full-fledged four-layered skin;
- subcutaneous fatty tissue is fully formed;
- the process of hair and nail growth is activated;
- the skin is very wrinkled, it is covered with protective grease, in the eyebrow area the layer is thickest;
- the surface of the fetal body is covered with fluff, which is called "lanugo"; its function is to ensure the possibility of original lubrication to be attached to the epidermis;
- the formation of the brain ends; it already has a furrowed structure with convolutions;
- the eyes of the fetus begin to open, he can grab the cord with his hands or suck his finger;
- the immunity of the child has already been formed;
- the child has periods of activity, he can distinguish between the time of day, depending on it being calm or excited, the activity of the baby can be affected by tactile or sonic stimuli;
- the reproductive system of the fetus is formed: in boys the testicles descend into the scrotum, and the ultrasound of the girl shows the maturity of the ovaries at week 20.
Ultrasound at week 20 is the most important examination of a pregnant woman, since it allows a more complete analysis of the development of the fetus and the condition of the mother.
What parameters are examined in 20 weeks
Each ultrasound screening has its purpose. During the ultrasound (20 weeks), all fetal bones are measured and the degree of development of the entire organ is analyzed. The most important indicators are:
- BDP - (biparietal size of the skull) is measured between the right and left parietal bones of the skull;
- LZR - distance from frontal to occipital bone of skull;
- CDH - the diameter of the chest;
- SJ - the diameter of the abdomen;
- length of hip bone;
- thickness of the placenta and others.
In addition to these indicators, special attention is paid to heart rate (should be within 130-160 beats / min) and heart size (18-20 mm). Also, the presence of four heart chambers and partitions between them is checked.
Norm of indicators
On ultrasound (20 weeks) the sex of the child can be determined most accurately. To independently analyze the results, you can use the table.
Basic standards of ultrasound scores at 20 weeks
Important! The table is not the reason for premature conclusions, only the attending physician is able to correctly decipher the ultrasound.
Preparation and conduct of ultrasound
At 20 weeks, ultrasound can be performed without special training. Pregnant does not need to adhere to the diet and wait for the filling of the bladder.
The ultrasound is based on the transabdominal method (the sensor is located on the front wall of the abdomen). If you spend at 20 weeks of ultrasound with a vaginal sensor, there is a possibility of premature miscarriage.
Pregnant can lie on the left side or on the back. For an ultrasonic wave to penetrate into the uterus, a special gel is applied to the abdomen on a water-soluble basis. It is easily repaired with a regular paper towel and does not cause any inconvenience.
Protocol of ultrasound examination
Filling of data on the fetus, the condition of amniotic fluid and the placenta is carried out according to a clear protocol:
- Indicates the number of fruits.
- The presentation of the fetus is evaluated, indicating which part of the body is in close proximity to the exit of the uterus. The optimal option is the head presentation, perhaps also the presentation of the fetus by the pelvic region. Ultrasound (20 weeks) allows for any location of the fetus, but by the 30th week it should stabilize so that the child can be born unhindered and without complications.
- The presence or absence of a cord with the umbilical cord is indicated.
- The state of the inner membrane of the uterus (myometrium) is described, which can influence the possibility of miscarriage.
- The amount and condition of amniotic fluid is assessed, the presence of small- or polyhydramnios, suspensions (at this time any suspensions in the amniotic fluid are pathologies).
- The length of the cervix is indicated. On ultrasound (20 weeks) the norm of this indicator is at least 3 cm.
- The state of the internal and external pharynx is described. At this time it should be closed.
- The condition of the placenta is also assessed. It should be placed about seven centimeters from the inner throat. The presence of any damage requires an urgent hospitalization of the pregnant woman.
Such a detailed analysis allows you to see the whole picture of the fetal condition and prevent premature miscarriage.
Features of the second prenatal screening
Most often, a child's ultrasound at week 20 is carried out together with a Doppler study. This makes it possible to detect the presence of chromosomal or genetic abnormalities of the fetus or to confirm that the child is completely healthy.
Dopplerometry determines the presence of certain substances in the blood and their content. Analyze the full picture and draw conclusions about the condition of the fetus can only the attending physician and a geneticist.
At 20 weeks, ultrasound is the safest and informative study that shows the general condition of the fetus and the extent of development of all vital organs.
Determination of sex
At 20 weeks, ultrasound can most accurately show the sex of the unborn child. It is not difficult to determine it. In boys, the genital organs are immediately visible, and the girls do not have any protuberances.
Difficulties with the definition of sex can arise because of the location of the fetus. In this case, you can re-examine after 15 minutes. Pregnant advise to eat a little chocolate, so that the baby becomes active.
When the child is located on the stomach, it is also difficult to determine his gender. Some babies turn away or hide during ultrasound, because the sex of the child for the parents remains a mystery until the very birth.
Even with the use of modern ultrasonic equipment, errors are possible with the definition of sex, to this one must be prepared.
Condition of the pregnant woman
At this time, the toxicosis is already passing, but a pregnant woman can often feel a feeling of heaviness in the stomach or heartburn. Frequent side effects are calf muscle cramps and headaches. To minimize these feelings, you need to fully rest, eat properly and consume enough vitamins.
It is important to monitor the swelling and the state of secretion. If swelling brings discomfort, you need to contact your doctor. If you change the amount or condition of secretions, it is also necessary to urgently consult a gynecologist to prevent infection of the fetus.
With ultrasound (20 weeks), the photo of the fetus can be stored and placed in a family album. This image will remind you of the wonderful waiting time for the baby.
A study at 20 weeks is the most important analysis of the fetus's condition, so do not pull and neglect it. Otherwise, at the right time, there may not be any developmental or deviation defects.